Psychological defense mechanisms

Recognition of any defense mechanisms the patient is using amongst the care provider and family can help to orient the medical team and improve the treatment outcome. Psychological defense mechanisms evolve over time- change with the age, and can even regress to earlier phases in response to stressors. Depending on the context and the severity, they are devided in maladaptive or adaptive. Article by Bailey et al describe primitive defense mechanisms that include 10 states, among which are acting out, avoidance, denial, identification and others. On the other hand, higher-level defense mechanisms accounts 11 states- anticipation, compensation, isolation, sublimation, etc. Psychodynamic therapy can facilitate patient care and should be considered aloong with pharmacotherapy.