Primary disorders of language and speech

The classification of disorders of language is based on the aspects of language affected. It is also related with phonology (the system of speech sounds), lexicon (vocabulary), syntax (grammar), semantics (meaning) and pragmatics (social aspects of language that take into account the speaker and the context). Moreover, speech disorders can affect one or more of mentioned above subcomponents, representing difficulties with speech sounds, vocal quality and resonance, and/or fluidity. General neuropsychological processes, such as speed of language processing and memory, are associated with specific language impairment. As such, disorders of speech may occur in isolation or in conjunction with disorders of language. Speech-language disorders secondary to known conditions are hearing loss, global developmental delay and intellectual disability, autism, neurological disorders, cleft palate.