Caffeine during pregnancy- safety concerns

Multiple evidence-based research works state that maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of complications. However, it's been found that 70% of women continue to consume caffeine during pregnancy. Article published in Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism Journal reviews main aspects of dangers behind this. Metabolic rate of caffeine in mothers significantly decreases after the first trimester, and the half-life of caffeine increases from 2.5–4.5 hours to 15 hours by the end of pregnancy. In addition to that, caffeine molecules can cross blood–placental barrier due to their lipophilic properties. This becomes an issue as neither fetus nor placenta has the enzymes for the metabolism. Some studies suggest that even a daily intake of 100–200 mg during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of such complications as: miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, and cognitive development impairments.